HISTORY OF THE REGION part III
A great famine struck in 1414.
At Baraigne in 1433, Bernard de Varagne was sent the Seneschal of Toulouse.
The Hundred Years War and its ongoing looting were terminated around 1450. (1)
At the end of the century Lauragais recorded an increase of plague epidemics.
In 1473 and especially in 1480 to 1481 victims of the bubonic plague were numerous in Baraigne and surrounding villages.
It was during this period that the capital was transferred from Laurac Lauragais in Castelnaudary.
In 1485, Jean Buisson, son of Bernard de Varagne , was lord of Baragne and Capitoul of Toulouse.
It is on ruins and fallow fields, that the inhabitants of Languedoc would lift his head. For a century, in fact, the region enjoyed relative peace.
It was between 1460 and 1562 that the situation is golden age in pastel Lauragais. Pastel leaves cultivated, gave an indelible blue dyes.
The best product came from Lauragais. Culture fell gardening, tilling and harvesting require abundant labor, the rural population of the region was certainly very dense at that time.
The number of mills was important, one to grind wheat and other to crush the dried leaves of pastel.
Reduced balls 15 cm in diameter, they formed shells (cakes) or greasy, from which the name of the land of plenty. (5)
At Baraigne two pastel mills were counted. The area was prosperous, the first building of the castle of Baraigne date then. On the manor house "de Buisson," lords of the region.
- 1660 : The end of the pastel - Wars of Religion
The end of the Pastel - In the middle of the sixteenth century, pastel economy found itself facing three enemies with shots proved fatal.
The enemy was the first episode of the War of Religions.
Taxes and tolls striked a second blow to the culture of pastel.
Finally, the third deadly it was indigo, the Indigotier that grew in Asia and the Caribbean. Much less expensive than the pastel Lauragais its coloring power was much higher.
The decline of the was rapid pastel. Soon 1618 the member for Toulouse to State reported that "the use of pastel goes completely ruined."
Wars of religion - After the "Cathar" episode, the region remained very forgiving rebellious evil atrocities of the Inquisition and had many Protestants. In the Aude in 1531, had been preached new religious ideas and in 1558 troops Protestants exist in most cities.
Reform easily penetrated in the Languedoc where the clergy itself was sometimes won to his cause. In 1561 the archbishop of Toulouse became a Protestant.
Religious unrest lasted from 1560 to 1596. Their character, very confused, however to distinguish the period of the massacres, the wars between Catholics and Protestants, and finally the period of the League drawn against Henry III and Henry IV.
The killings - They took place between 1560 and and 1562.
In Carcassonne, Protestants toppled a statue of the Virgin, they were executed, but the crowd massacred other Protestants met in the streets. Two years later, a few hundred Protestants returning from preaching, celebrated outside the walls, under the law, found their back doors of the closed city. After three days of waiting, harassed by the Catholics, they had to flee. Many were drowned in the Aude.
At Castelnaudary, the same year, fifty Protestants, including a senior finance and several advisers to the Tribunal, were murdered in broad daylight.
At Limoux, Protestants went master of the city and killed Catholics. They were soon driven and sixty of them hanged.
War - Thereafter both parties were organized, but the numbers remained small: at most 4-5000 men. Major cities, sheltered behind their ramparts were never seriously worried. But the villages, castles suffered greatly. The famine was added to the plague and the two adversaries concluded many truces, usually followed to protect plowing, harvesting and livestock grazing.
The Aude region was the usual scene of battles between Catholics concentrated around Toulouse and Protestants became very strong in the Cevennes and Lower Languedoc. Nîmes and Béziers were their strongholds.
And that was how Mas Stes Puelles became dice half of the sixteenth century one of the most important strongholds of the Huguenots. From 1564 to 1622, the heresy of Calvin was mistress.
Starting from Mas where they had established in 1561, Protestants made numerous raids on towns and villages.
Looting, destruction of villages and towns grew.
Often taking a village or castle was followed by mass executions.
In 1572 all the country's churches burned.
Baraigne was not spared, but only a part of the nave and the tower will be destroyed.
In 1575 the royal army took over the castle of Villeneuve la Comptal and besieging the Mas Stes Puelles, the garrison aided by the inhabitants successfully repulsed attacks and the Duke of Joyeuse in command had to lift the siege after losing three hundred men.
In 1581 Henri de Navarre, the future Henri IV sent envoys to Mas to inform and calm the Protestants.
Two new attacks in 1583 and 1586 had no other effect than to ravage the region.
Castelnaudary, Carcassonne and Narbonne remained in power Catholics.
The Holy League - The royal authority, powerless to stop the unrest, was soon known. Two large families, the Joyeuse in Toulouse, and that of Montmorency, which provided the Governor of the Province, clashed. Under the reign of Henry III, the Catholic organization called the Holy League, made one of his Toulouse strongholds and the Duke of Joyeuse, his head in Languedoc. The Duke of Montmorency remained loyal to the king and grouped Catholics, eager to end the unrest, and moderate Protestants. Towns and villages had to declare for or against the League.
In 1589, at the accession of Henry IV, Castelnaudary, Limoux and Narbonne, ligueuses cities opposed Carcassonne, royalist city.
In 1591, the depleted state of the province was as long truces were signed. Soon the abjuration of Henry IV, his reconciliation with the papacy, brought the end of the wars of religion. And the promulgation of the Edict of Nantes, April 13, 1598, establishes an "official" quiet until his dismissal in 1685.
He proclaimed the full amnesty for the past and the free exercise of the reformed religion.
The latest unrest - For Aude, as throughout France, the wise administration of Henri IV and Sully brought back gradually prosperity. Calm succeeding the many years of ruin and slaughter allowed people to work and rebuild the fortunes of towns and villages. But this brief, happy period ended with the problems of the minority of Louis XIII.
The Protestants of the Cevennes and Nîmes in the east, and those of Montauban, west, wanted, under the command of the Duke of Rohan, maintain communications through the Aude country. As against the Duke of Montmorency still loyal to the king, seeking to deny them passage. As in the past, campaigns were the most affected.
In 1622, Louis XIII and the royal army of ten thousand soldiers, twelve guns and six hundred carts passed through the region from west to east. King submitted Caraman, Cuq and the borders of Lauragais, July 3 took Mas Saintes Puelles who was burned and ransacked.
The fire lasted for eight days, and the village was razed the following month in order Councillor Bertrand Molleville minister of the king. (4)
The king stayed several days in Castelnaudary and Carcassonne won when he visited the city. The day of his departure, a terrible fire burned 250 homes in the neighborhood of the Capuchins.
The Duke of Rohan, having allied with the king of England and Spain, often maneuvered in Castelnaudary area where he could watch the road to Castres, Toulouse, Mirepoix. November 3, 1627, he gave battle between the Duke of Montmorency and Souilhanels Souilhes: the battle was indecisive.
Peace was restored in 1629 by the "Grace of Ales" imposed by Richelieu. Protestants lost their safe havens and their garrisons, but kept the freedom of conscience.
Misfortunes never come alone, the plague continued to ravage the Lauragais three outbreaks in 1628, 1629 and 1630 decimated the population.
The Duke of Montmorency - But a new conflict broke out in the Languedoc. The Duke of Montmorency in the province had considerable authority. He rose against the power of Richelieu, who wished, after the defeat of the Protestants, lower the pride and authority of the great lords. He allied himself with the king's brother Gaston d'Orléans, negotiated with Spain, and forced the states of Languedoc to support it.
The Duke of Montmorency wanted to capture Narbonne, which would have secured communications with Spain, which he expected relief. But the city of Narbonne drove all the supporters of the Duke and received several hundred soldiers of the king landed on the coast.
Carcassonne also lent a special oath of loyalty to the king. Operations of civil war had begun. Friends of Montmorency, masters Lezignan Montreal, Fanjeaux, attacked the castle of Montlaur, but an output of the inhabitants of Carcassonne raised the siege.
The army of the rebels went from Beziers to meet the royal army commanded by Marshal de Schomberg and installed around Castres.
The brush took place on the banks of Fresquel north of Castelnaudary. It was very brief: the Duke of Montmorency charged with fury, as if seeking death. He walked six rows of soldiers and fell with multiple gunshot wounds. This battle ended the civil war, as the army of the king's brother broke up without a fight.
The Duke of Montmorency wounded, was tried, sentenced to death and executed in Toulouse, in the courtyard of City Hall on 22 October 1632.
His body was led by two priests in the church of Saint-Saturnin in the carriage of Cardinal de la Valette, abbot places. The body and head of Montmorency were temporarily placed in the chapel of St. Exupère. On opening the body for embalming, surgeons found there five times and counted fifteen or sixteen wounds received in battle of Castelnaudary. They recousurent the head to the body before the embalming.
Louis XIII and the Cardinal de Richelieu came to the province to attend the trial. By Montpellier and Beziers, they arrived at Narbonne, undergoing a terrible storm flood plain and slew three hundred people drowned by the flood of the Aude.
King visited the battlefield of Castelnaudary and Toulouse gained.
The Thirty Years War - The Languedoc did not long remain peaceful. The Thirty Years' War broke out between France and Spain, the Spaniards, after long preparations, invaded the Languedoc. The Duke of Halwin, son of Marshal de Schomberg, gathered an army in which the inhabitants of Languedoc cities furnished a large part of the workforce.
September 27, 1636, the militia of Narbonne, Carcassonne, Castres, Beziers, Montpellier, Dragons Toulouse, Languedoc regiment and other troops, led by a fierce nobility were turned to attack Spanish entrenchments, removed them, capturing several thousand prisoners and all the enemy artillery. In the castle of Leucate issued a solemn Mass was celebrated and enthusiasm broke out in the province.
The Narbonne region served for many years the base of operations for the French army in charge of the conquest of Roussillon. The King and the Cardinal reappeared in Narbonne during the siege of Perpignan, victoriously ended August 29, 1642.
With the annexation of Roussillon to France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the military history of the Aude region ended for a long time.(13)
- 1780 : Economics Reforms
Under the personal reign of Louis XIV, the royal authority became very strong, is imposed as well as the cities to states. Languedoc and benefited greatly from the economic reforms undertaken by Colbert in 1666 work began Languedoc Canal, and about the same time came the preferred manufacturing system which ensured the Aude region an extraordinary development of the industry textile.
Canal Languedoc - Pierre-Paul Riquet, born in Béziers in 1604, a senior official of the finance and large owner: one of its properties was in the Black Mountain and perfect knowledge of the area allowed him to study carefully the projects to collect, through a channel, the Mediterranean to the ocean, or rather the Garonne. Riquet showed that it was impossible to drive at Naurouze waters of the Ariege, but many streams of the Black Mountain could provide water to the channel.
Research - "Riquet was a long time withdraw his long reveries and his unsuccessful races, the distressing conviction of the futility of his research . One day finally located a short distance of stones Naurouze near a. source, the fountain of la Grave, he saw with surprise that the waters gushed to separate themselves and run in opposite directions.
Riquet glimpsed since if it were possible to gather on this point enough to power a channel gable water could then by means of locks, down to the two seas.
He looked in the Montagne Noire sources should realize that all his hopes. Indefatigable, he neglected no trickle. He was assisted in this work by two single workers Revel and yet he made no mistake.
When he matured his plan, he thought he could submit to Colbert with the confidence of success. In joy he felt his discovery, he sent a first letter dated 26 November 1662, in which he exposed himself, with all the warmth of conviction, walking their ideas, concerns and how they had dissipated and finally the certainty of a result he now kept as an insured. " (Guide du voyageur - Toulouse 1853)
The construction - Louis XIV decided to build the canal by the Edict of October 1666. Riquet actively pushed the work, employing 10 to 12,000 workers. We first made the trough of the Black Mountain, the Rigole of the Plain and the channel Toulouse at Trèbes. Basin St. Ferreol, built in 1667, was added to the original plan.
To the Mediterranean we hesitated before deciding that the canal would be completed in the Thau lagoon on whose banks it adjusted its port of Sète. Narbonne asked, unsuccessfully, that the channel was directed to the Port of La Nouvelle.
The inauguration - Riquet, died in October 1680, did not see the opening of the channel.
May 15, 1681, the waters of St. Ferreol, flowing from Naurouze to the ocean and the Mediterranean began to fill the channel. On the same day, during a major religious ceremony celebrated in Toulouse St Etienne Cathedral, all thoughts went to Riquet buried under a pillar of the church.
Then a boat richly ornamented and bearing the Intendant Aguesseau, Count Caraman, son of Riquet and a large retinue, went eastward, reaching Castelnaudary 17 mai.Après various ceremonies which attended the Archbishop of Narbonne the journey continued to Beziers. The official procession was followed by a twenty boats full of English and Dutch goods shipped to the fair of Beaucaire. All the way, the people cheered Languedoc passengers.
The Canal du Languedoc was the best work done in the world in the seventeenth century, he gave considerable in the province for the transport of wine and wheat services because the cartage on the roads was slow, more painful and expensive.
Figures - The most important dates of this gigantic work were:
1662 Proposal Pierre Paul Riquet at Colbert.
1665 Adoption of the draft by the Royal Commissioners.
1667 Beginning of the works.
1668 Testing the navigation channel of the plain.
1680 Death of Pierre Paul Riquet.
1681 Opening of navigation.
The book held twelve thousand workers and cost sixteen million pounds. It was completed in fourteen years.
The final reception was held March 16, 1685.
The Canal du Midi, the Garonne to the Thau lagoon has a length of 241 Kilometers and has 62 locks.
St Ferreol tank that feeds containing more than six million cubic meters of water, more than the total capacity of the channel volume meters. (4)
Its opening in 1681 marked the beginning of the golden age of wheat. The channel wedge out Lauragais and will see heavy traffic.(5)
The cloth industry - the textile industry was transformed by Regulation September 2, 1666, prepared by order of Colbert, who wanted to direct all economic activity closely. Each piece made to be presented to the jury guards factories, which marked, indicating that it was in compliance with regulations and good quality.
The most manufactory remarkable of the Saptes, near Conques , dating back to the fifteenth century, and Dutch workers, Catholics, worked there since 1620. She received the title of royal manufactory. In 1689 she was 200 workers and manufactured many pieces of cloth called londrins for export. Later the manufacture of Trivalle Carcassonne was built as a royal factory. But many factories were set free. There were fifty in 1709. The textile industry developed in the Montagne Noire (Caunes Saissac, St Denis, Montolieu Cuxac, Mas Cabardes, Cennes, etc ...), then to Limoux Chalabre.
The excellence of the products produced in the Aude region assured an easy sell in Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria where tissues must shipped through the port of Marseille reached.
But prosperity, the result of hard work, was seriously compromised by the long war of the Spanish Succession which brought harm to trade in the Mediterranean.
The levies of men, taxes overwhelmed the country in which terrible winters did much wrong.
The decline - It began in 1679 with the collapse of trade led to the scarcity of money, the accelerated weathering.
Drought and severe cold plunged the region into a position close to annihilation.
In the autumn of 1679 could no longer plow, wheat did not push, and in 1681, 1682 and especially 1683. The wells were dry. Processions and prayers could not make it rain.
Farmers no longer had the opportunity to smoke their fields. The bread became scarce and expensive. The number of illnesses and deaths increased. To feed it remained only millet, turnips and beans. At worst, we ate wheatgrass.
Farmers could no longer live on their land and tried to find other occupations.
Louis XIV was ruining the country with its wars.
There were six major crises: 1683, 1693, 1710-1714, 1726-1734,1752-1753 and 1783-1784.
In autumn 1709 we thought at the end of the drought. Hope reborn. The fields were full of water, plain Avignonet was flooded. But the cold felt on the region, trees burst. The severity of the winter wheat crop destroyed. Fields became wastelands.
In 1710, at Baraigne, the village was almost deserted. The weather became less severe after 1753.
Agriculture began to revive with the corn coming to America and who had just appeared in the Lauragais. He was side for the first time in the grain market of Castelnaudary in November 1673. Corn became the wheat for two hundred years, the staple food of men and animals (especially corn bread millas).
It was time, the number of inhabitants of Baraigne was less than 40.
But the weather is still rife, the crops were poor in 1763 and 1764. In 1781 they were "blown away by the fog." (1)
The period was later dubbed of "mini Ice Age". Here it is clearly identified.
In spite of these attacks, the death of Louis XIV in 1715, the Revolution, the Aude region presented all the signs of a period of progress and activity.
The textile industry - It reached its peak in 1729. But in 1780, a serious crisis threatened: difficulties arose between employers and weavers, they complained about the constant depreciation of their work.
The same complaints rose from the ranks of traders. It was mandatory to send the sheets to Marseille and Bordeaux wine.
The movement of all goods was subject to multiple and confusing regulations.
Agriculture - The production increased, crops and livestock were improved gradually, but the crushing taxes, feudal tolls more rigorously than ever exasperated peasants. They also coveted the lands of the nobles and especially those of the clergy often poorly worked.
The rural population increased and more land was needed. The decline of almost deserted abbeys, the severity of some lords aviva resentment in the countryside.
All the elements of a major crisis were in place, the Revolution could begin ...
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