The study Leo BARBE (Bulletin of the Federation Archaeological Herault 1979)


Although almost contemporary precedents types considered below are no longer the simple graphic of a instrument of torture even if it is figured that as a symbol of victory of figurative death. The design is, that without a more complex as the meaning ornamental or artistic intent, and they come from other previous symbols.

PATTEE CROSS : said of a cross whose one end is slightly flared branches often wrongly used to characterize cross whose arms flare from the cross.


(near Pamplona after Frankowski)

ANCHORED CROSS : refers to a cross which the ends of branches, cracked, bends to form two single hooks recalling anchor ships.

(near Colas).

CERCELÉE CROSS : we can also say in heraldry recercelée. This is an extrapolation from the previous whose hooks are developed and closed as the end butts Bishops.

(Manual cross divergent branchs, jeweled and recercelée, Visigothic pillar, Museum of Narbonne)

BRANCH CUPPED CROSS : we created this typology to avoid frequent confusion with the far end cross and the cross of Malta. It is generally a cross with equal arms but can be kind of Latin and one must specify which branches straight edges gradually widen from the cross. The base of the branchs can be of variable form, indicate whether it is straight, concave or convex, the most frequent case when the cross is inscribed in a circle (discoid).

(Discoid stele, medium font church Aules-Doazit Landes).

CROSS BRANCH CURVILINEAR : this terminology has also appeared necessary to avoid confusion that frequently did, lexicons, glossaries and other dictionaries who, it seems, nothing proposed. By this we mean the cross, whose branches are formed of curved lines. As for cross flared branches will be specified if the base of the branches is concave, convex or straight.

(Cross curved branches with concave bases, abandoned cemetery Pardies-Peyrehorade, Landes - Private Collection)

POTENTED CROSS : it is an equal-armed cross, the latter being formed by many tau cross, crux patibulata, which was indeed the most classical to the early days of Christianity gallows. Called Jerusalem where a cross potent is confined to cross croisettes which can also be potented.

(Musée de Cluny, Paris)

CROSSLET CROSS : derives from the Greek cross, like the previous one, in that the branches are equal, but this time made ​​by Greek or Latin cross.

(Discoid stele Lecumbery, Pyrénées-Atlantiques).

CROSS DOUBLE CROSS : Latin type, but with the two highest being the shortest and probably the titulus from which the cross of Christ, remembered the derisive title given to him by Pilate cross branches. The "Cross of Lorraine" too specialized terminology should be avoided, such as "patriarchal cross."

(Discoid stele Larressore, Pyrénées-Atlantiques).

CROSS CLÈCHÉE: says crosses the branches look like rings of Gothic keys. The best-known type is the cross of Toulouse. You should know, however, that the latter is floating point representation such that some cross Toulouse are just not cléchées and the currencies Marquisat of Provence in the twelfth century as well as many discoid steles. Note that the term cléché referring to a key ring, this implies that the term "empty" is often added and then is unfortunately a common redundant.

(Equal branches Cross, and cléchée bouletée St Michel de Lanes, Aude).

CROSS POMMETEE : A cross nimbus emptied a small Greek cross.

(Stele discoid Mfr11 Montferrand Aude).

CROSS BOULETÉE: Greek Cross emptied and triple bouletée twelve points, more known as the Cross Toulouse.

(Near Dieudonné)

BEADED CROSS : These three terminologies that can not be synonymous were just used all three previous cross and must be specified. We propose a criterion dimension :
The first terminology is used when the pattern adorning the ends of branches reaches a diameter larger than the thickness of the branch. The term pelletized will work on the grounds of a diameter equal to or less than the width of the branch. As for the pearl, it will be reserved for a very small proportion still reasons to the thickness of the branch. It will sometimes specify, if any, that these patterns can be attached to the cross through short segments.

(Croix huguenotte)

HALOED CROSS : refers to a cross of any kind whatsoever, when a disc of variable size is figured at the crossroads, either forward or backward in the same plane as the branches. This halo can be partially recessed in the four cantons as the Irish cross the High Middle Ages, when it looks like a crown, it is nonetheless a halo and no iconographic filiation can be considered a crown.

(Auzier near Moustier-Ventadour, Corrèze).

DISCOID CROSS : terminology used for funerary monuments with no vocation, where the upper arms of the cross are replaced by a disk full or partially hollow.

(Cross bridge Fanjeaux Aude)

TREFOIL CROSS : Latin triforium, at least three branches each terminating in three rounded leaves.

BLOSSOMED CROSS : by that we mean a cross, the end of the branches adorned with a jewel, that is to say, a flower bud.

(Monnaie capétienne)

FLEURDELISEE CROSS : This terminology is used for the cross, the ends of branches is decorated this time of a lily, sometimes more or less stylized. When this lily is richly worked, as in the arms of the city of Florence, is sometimes also said florencée but fleurdelisee terminology seems sufficient avoiding an appreciation remains subjective.

(Near Dieudonné)

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