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HISTORY

Southeast wind blowing from the Mediterranean to the Languedoc, the Montagne Noire and the Cévennes "... Behind the terse definition of the Larousse Encyclopedia is more than just a meteorological phenomenon that the pace of life of the people of Languedoc especially Lauragais. This is what I will try to share with you here.
First the origin of the word "Marine" is typically Lauragaise, it is actually the southerly wind, Latin Altanus (open sea). In the tax records of the sixteenth, the south wind is designated. (2) The story is remembered as the violence has always marked the spirits. The song of the Crusade against the Cathars (1209-1229) describes the storm autan realism that accompanied the latest attack by the Crusaders against Toulouse on Sunday, July 1, 1218.
Likewise May 7, 1463, during the reign of Louis XI, the fire that destroyed 7,000 houses Toulouse, was fueled by the southerly wind. (3) Closer to us in May 1916, its gusts toppled several wagons of train Toulouse Revel killing one person. (2) And still after its passage there are countless broken branches, torn chimneys and made before the harvest time for farmers.
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GENERAL

The crazy wind, the wind of the devil or the wind died as he is nicknamed, is the southerly wind is a real part of life Lauragais as this hot dry wind causes insomnia by the noise it causes and excites people nervous.
At all times it was also valuable ally millers and the "engine" of their mill.
Until the middle of this century, the southerly wind was living in Lauragais hundreds of them. Today technology helping new "mills" appear on the massif of Clape near Narbonne and now Avignonet, but they do more flour ... It is the wind of Electricity of France that produce kilowatts / hour .
It also became the ally of the hundreds of amateur windsurfers who attends Lake Ganguise weekend.
In this natural corridor that is the Naurouze, air movement is constant and calm days are rare since, alone the southerly wind blows statistically 80 days per year.
But the area is not limited to Lauragais it extends from Perpignan south to Auch and Agen west, ending north to Rodez and Cahors.
Few days before it breath appears on the quiet region, characterized by an air-free steam. Thus it is possible to see all the Pyrenees 150 km further south. This curious phenomenon has not escaped our farmers who noticed the "auta bufa bowl" (the south wind blow wants).
But try to explain how to create the southerly wind or rather the winds. For if their trajectories are essentially the same ground, channeled into the groove of Lauragais, the Black Mountain to the north and the south Corbières, continued by the mountains of the trap, the origin of each is different.
Marin Bordeaux-Sete
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"WHITE" ANTAN

In trying to simplify all the weather factors that may influence the nature of the departure or southerly wind (season, humidity etc ...), there emerges two major trends originated.
Firstly the autan "white" created by the circular movement of air ascending reigning around the area of high pressure anticyclone centered on Eastern Europe, balancing the Icelandic Low. The most common situation in our latitudes. (see photo)
The current spiral rotating in the direction of clockwise, starting on the coast of the Gulf of Lion to climb high in the region of Cahors. It clears the sky and the weather settles. But softening temperature it dries the soil. It is in the region the most frequent and most violent wind. His bursts regularly reach 80 to 100km / h.
Autan Blanc
Antan blanc 2
Documents Météo Fance
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"BLACK" AUTAN

But in recent years, perhaps due to the ongoing climate change due to pollution, another wind is becoming more common, it is the south wind "black"
When depression is centered on Spain, balancing the extension of the Azores, it creates around it a spiral flow down this time and turn anticlockwise. One of the latter is particularly violent devastated the Aude in November 1999 (4).
The wind moves along the coast of Spain in taking care of moisture on the sea enters the Languedoc from Perpignan to Beziers and follows a Carcassonne, Toulouse and Agen where he is dying trajectory. (see photo)
It is he who is typically called Lauragais "Marin". The black autan "Marin" is indeed characterized by a sky full of black clouds created by the evaporation of the Mediterranean. And if foehn effect, much of this water falls south of Corbières, Limoux protecting and east of the Black Mountain, protecting Revel, much is happening more and more often on this Lauragais wind brings rain.
Even if it rains very rarely as he blows, Marin up on our regions a large cloud mass which inevitably falls as rain when the pressure balance or return to the West.
Autan noir
Autan noir 2
Documents Météo Fance
But Lauragaise earth be as beautiful today if at the discretion of our sky winds are southerly wind blew hot or cold dry or wet ...

©Serge Delestaing 02/2000


Bibliography
(1) Les Prévisions météo de A à Z - Météo France - Stock 1994
(2) Les grandes heures des moulins occitans - Jean & Huguette Bézian - Terre Humaine Plon 1994
(3) Lauragais - Jean ODOL - Privat 1995.
(4) Lien Météo France

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