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HISTORY OF THE REGION part IV
Accueil
1780 - 1850 : Revolution
1850 - 1900 : Another Revolution
1900 - 1950 : Two Wars
1950 - 2000 : The second breath

 

 


1780 - 1850 : Revolution
Baraigne lived through the Revolution alternating relative calm that he derived his isolation and violent visits made ​​him revolutionary enthusiasts of the plain.
The castle and the church were looted, destroyed archives.
The only evidence that we have received Baraigne at this time are those of religious memory.
In 1789 the abbot Canut, resident pastor, was from Montferrand. When the National Assembly decreed the civil constitution of the clergy, he took the oath to the Constitution.
Become "juror priest", he was regarded as an ordinary citizen.
Designated as a member of the council, he was charged in 1792, to hold the new civil status. He continued as he did in the past, to include baptisms, weddings and funerals. (6)
Was it because of his age or disorder climate then in 1793 he retired to his home in Montferrand. (7)
But the main track that left the Revolution in the region was administrative.
Baraigne-Montferrand

The States General - Members States General were elected in seneschal of Carcassonne, Castelnaudary and Limoux. Preparatory meetings were held in the month of February 1789. Municipalities, senechaussees prepared their list of grievances, complaints and remonstrances.
The Seneschal of Castelnaudary States General was represented by a member of the clergy, the nobility (the Marquis de Vaudreil), two of the Third Estate (including Martin d'Auch).

The specifications of Grievances - He said the most profound respect for the King and the Catholic religion, but asked for Protestants the civil status and access to administrative functions, except for the judiciary, police and public education.
He asked that were set by a solemn act, the periodic return of the States General, the voting of taxes, individual freedom, personal responsibility of ministers, the removal of salt tax, reform of the judiciary, freedom of trade and industrial, etc. ...

The creation of the Department - The department was created January 29, 1790. Its limits were approved by all representatives of the region and members of the Albigensian and country of Foix, familiar with the country. Overall, the department was formed by Aude dioceses. However 9 towns were removed in the diocese of St Papouls to be united to the departments of Haute-Garonne and Tarn, which Avignonet; 29 towns in the diocese of Alet in favor of the Ariege and Pyrenees Orientales, 6 towns of the diocese Narbonne in favor of the Herault. But Aude received in exchange 56 towns of the diocese of Mirepoix.(13)

1 esquisse du département
During this work, the members responsible for the operation were attacked interventions village communities wishing their attachment to each department of Carcassonne, the other to another department.
Baraigne historically attached by his lords, to Avignonet Aux Cassés and Montgiscard, will be those out there and ask to be connected to the Haute-Garonne.
But few people at that time, will not weigh, and the town was annexed December 6, 1790 in Canton Salles sur l'Hers.
Avignonet hitherto administered by the Seneschal of Lauragais Castelnaudary, finally left the region for the new department of Haute-Garonne.

The original department was larger, as extended on the current territory of the Ariege. (10)
Place Head of department was disputed, and it was a question, initially to establish an alternation between the main cities, Carcassonne finally its geographical position won his case well as the time the population was lower than Narbonne.
On June 3, 1790 took place in Carcassonne great patriotic party, and three colors, became the symbol of national unity, there were acclaimed: delegates from national guards marched department and the Revolution completed one thought: it just beginning.

The main events - The unrest erupted from 1792 to 1795 were due to the supply of grain and the religious question.
Many wheat traveling on the Canal du Midi in the direction of Bas- Languedoc. In August 1792, the populations of Cabardès, fearing starvation, were fixed on the port Fresquel to prevent the shipment of grain and threatened Carcassonne and massacred the Attorney General Verdier. The leaders of the riot, Jeanne Black and two men were arrested and guillotined on 1 September 1792 in Carcassonne.
The religious question quickly took a fairly serious nature as parallel to the creation of departments, the ecclesiastical organization was altered according to the principle of a bishopric by department.
Narbonne, who had given on the implementation of the chief of department, managed this time to get the bishopric, to the detriment of the bishoprics of Carcassonne, Alet and St. Papouls, which were deleted.
The Constituent Assembly which granted the suppression of convents and monasteries, ancient abbeys disappeared. The clergy appointed by the election were sworn to the Constitution. It was the occasion of painful scenes at the election and especially at the time of oath. Many refractory priests hid in the mountains and tried to enter Spain. One of them stopped in the district of Limoux, provides the only victim of the Terror in the department. But many were executed Audois in Lyon and Paris, the most famous was Fabre d'Eglantine, member of the Convention who did create the names of the months of the revolutionary calendar.

The consequences of the Revolution - If some revolutionary acts, some useful and glorious (patriotic holidays, homeland defense), the other reprehensible (fire Archives of the City of Carcassonne and the relics of the Cathedral of Narbonne) especially attracted the attention of contemporaries, especially the Revolution had profound economic consequences for the suppression of feudal rights and the sale of Church property and emigrants.
Relieved of tithing, peasants worked for them and the situation is improving rapidly owners.

The Consulate and the Empire - November 26, 1791, at the initiative of the county council, district Castelnaudary reshuffled its cantons. Baragne passed township of Salles sur l'Hers at the St Michel de Lanes newly created. This division lasted until the year IV (1795).
In the consulship of Bonaparte, the Law of 28 pluviose, Year VIII, changed the administrative divisions. The accounting department four boroughs and 31 cantons, and received financial and judicial administration that has survived almost unchanged until today.
In 1800, the Concordat transferred the bishopric of Narbonne to Carcassonne.
Finally, 4 November 1801 (13 Brumaire X), the canton of St Michel de Lanes was deleted. Baragne rejoined one of Salles sur l'Hers and Canton found itself formed of 14 towns that we know today.

Economic conditions - More than a victory of the left in the region, the elections of the year VII (1799) marked the confusion of opinion. The disintegration of the economic situation, and especially the conscription losses they entailed, multiplied unhappy.
Royalist insurgents besieged Toulouse. Only neighboring cantons of Haute-Garonne, in particular Gaja rooms and Salles a shy part in the insurrection.
Labastide d'Anjou Castelnaudary and Carcassonne, the columns of the National Guard testified by their action on the strength of Republican positions and restored order. (11)
However strips off-the-law still held the country ... "They gathered all the debris of the old and the new world, fraudsters and rebellious, the Republican army deserters, survivors insurgencies royalists, nobles fell and highwaymen ..."
This rural terror was more or less diffuse throughout France. (8)
Baraigne had his tragedy on the night of October 12 to 13, 1802 (21 to 22 Vendémiaire, An X).
"A gang of 22 robbers attacked the miller and his wife at the old mill for robbing. A young carpenter was also with them. Despite their strength the woman finally confessed to save his life, which was in a garret considerable amount of money. Package accomplished bandits killed them all for their silence. But the young carpenter with jugular trench could drag himself to the village to alert and describe his killers. He died the next day.
The perpetrators and accomplices in number 19 were arrested in the towns of Salles Mas St Puelles, Castelnaudary, St Michel de Lanes and Avignonet. Only three escaped. "(9)
Yet at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the turmoil of the Revolution soothing, the region experienced a demographic explosion. In 1812 Baraigne had a record population of 241 inhabitants.
The department had abundant youth and as soon as the order reigned, the agricultural situation was in net progress. The cultivated area is increasing constantly by clearing often abusive. The commons of the villages were sold and many forests disappeared.
In our totally crop, is the generalization was sharecropping. All large and small owners used a labor-intensive rented all year, always from the Saints. This period modeled the campaign that we know today. All arable land was worked.
New road was made. The Canal du Midi was deflected to pass Carcassonne thus had its port.

The end of the Empire - In 1814, after twenty years of revolutionary fever and conquering France is attacked from all sides. On the border of the Pyrenees, the British general Wellington with less than 100 000 men, was soon in October 1813, forced the passage of the Bidassoa and slowly eroded the land despite efforts of Marshal Soult. While in Roussillon, Marshal Suchet contained with great difficulty the Spaniards.
A bloody battle took place in Toulouse 12 April 1814 and had 12,000 dead. The strong army of Marshal Soult 30,000 men could only retreat and fell back on Castelnaudary with the intention of winning by Fanjeaux the upper valley of the Aude to attract English in the mountains.
She took position on the heights of the mill of St. Catherine, and the hills of Mas Saintes Puelles and Villeneuve, the artillery was placed drive from Revel in order to protect their retreat where the British army, which was encamped under the walls of St Felix, would come to cut it off.
April 14, from Gauzy hotel where he had established his headquarters, Marshal Soult was defeated general. The battle seemed close when mail arrived announcing the restoration of the Bourbons and a suspension of hostilitées. But Soult rejected with disdain the plenipotentiary of Wellington, whose headquarters were in the castle of La Tour d'Auvergne in St Paulet. However, he gave a mission of his aides to ascertain the veracity of the abdication of the Emperor took place on April 6.
Officially informed of the return of the Bourbons to the throne, he then rallied to Louis XVIII in a written agenda Castelnaudary April 19.
The army received with sadness the decision Soult who signed the armistice with Wellington Naurouze in the house of the engineer of the canal. The soldiers, after breaking ranks, angrily threw their bread ration, their equipment, but there were no major incidents.
Louis XVIII entered Paris May 3, 1814. The day before, the Duc d'Angouleme, eldest son of the future Charles X, was visiting from Toulouse to Castelnaudary. He was received at the entrance to the city by the Marshals Soult and Suchet army commander of Roussillon and the mayors of the region.
He passed in 6000 reviewed the men who remained in garrison and lined the streets. At the sound of fanfares and cheering the Duke then proceeded in the neighborhood of the Hotel Baffe to Monsieur de Treville, where he lunched. This feast was followed in the evening by a fireworks and a dance.
During the weeks that followed the fall of the Empire, the festivities were numerous(15)

The Hundred Days and the White Terror - The short period of the Hundred Days was stained by either an attack or a conviction. But after Waterloo, the end of the 1815 years and the beginning of 1816 was marked by a new era of terror: July 20, 1815, three people accused of conspiring against the monarchy, were guillotined in Carcassonne. Dozens of prison sentence reached supporters of the Emperor and the people who wore the tricolor. The King Louis XVIII happily ended the White Terror returning "Found the room".
However, when August 5, 1830, at the news of the July Revolution, the tricolor floated freely in Carcassonne, his view unleashed indescribable enthusiasm.

Economic and social issues - Department whose population had never been very quiet during the story was still rough days under the July Monarchy.
In 1832, in Carcassonne, a quarrel between the bishop and the parish priest of St Vincent put for several days the city under siege.
Socialist ideas "Saint-Simonian" met in Aude enough followers to allow the formation of a church "Saint-Simonian" in Castelnaudary.
The restlessness, discontent, hope new doctrines were largely due to economic issues regarding this: the Aude industry declined steadily, wages, significantly lower than the Napoleonic era, the workers did not allow a life miserable.
Agriculture is painfully transformed. The population was much larger than in the eighteenth century, double in many villages. Agricultural production had not increased in the same proportions, cities no longer offered abundant work once.
However, the government made ​​a huge effort to overcome this difficult situation considerable sums were spent on new roads, especially for communication between villages.
The economic crisis took a dangerous pace towards 1836. The prefect asked the government for relief workers.
In Carcassonne, the two main factories 600 workers who were not retained as 140. There were in the city nearly 2,000 unemployed and the situation worsened after the Beaucaire fair where business was zero. It was open workshops charity.
Workers often made ​​machines for unemployment. They introduced themselves gradually in the department of Aude. Spinning machines were many with a factory manager English. Industrial transformation began.(13)

Retour
1850 - 1900 Another Revolution

The Second Republic and Second Empire - The February Revolution of 1848 and the establishment of the Second Republic raised a great hope: all classes of the population participated for a few weeks this joy. The Bishop of Carcassonne hired clergy to join the new government and the blessing of the trees of Liberty provides beautiful manifestations.
But the agitation continued quickly. May 15, 1848, the workers navvies national workshops, created since March 1, manifested with violence against the City Council and clashed with the National Guard.
The opinion was passionate about the election of the President of the Republic. The name of Napoleon remained very popular, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte won all the votes in the plebiscite that followed. The Republican Party remained strong in cities. The coup d'etat of December 2, 1851 was marked by no event, but a few dozen people were exiled, imprisoned or deported to Algeria.
When the President came to Prince Carcassonne 3 October 1852, it was well received. It took two months later, as Napoleon III.

Economic Development - A revolution that succeeded men of science and technology.
The Second Empire was a period of almost universal prosperity. Two causes are helped, the development of railways and the extension of the vineyard.
Napoleon imposed in 1853 the passage of the railway Toulouse Cette (now Sète) by Aude: he had to fight for the Tarn proposed to do through the valleys of Thore and Jaur. On 2 April 1857 the line was opened, and with it, in the region, the creation of Avignonet stations, Segala, Mas Saintes Puelles, Castelnaudary.
Branching Narbonne-Perpignan was completed around the same time and from 1860 to 1870 spurs Castelnaudary, Castres and Carcassonne Quillan were undertaken. And at first this new means of transportation opened new horizons to all these "brassiers" hopeless.
From 1860 the region literally lost half of its population to the cities of Toulouse and Carcassonne which they doubled theirs. Technology helping industrial centers were created.
And this trend was significant effects in the distribution of the department's population.
In a report, the Prefect of the Department reported a decline in net more of the textile industry and added "The sale of agricultural products and enriching wine country gave a very strong impetus to the use of plaster and building materials. in the district of Castelnaudary, lime kilns working non-stop due to new construction and repairs in Narbonne. "

Segala in a brick factory settled and used the station to sell its products.
At Mas Stes Puelles, it was not less than ten industrial business who used the new medium of export: 5 plants plaster, lime plants 2 and 3 potteries.
But this same railroad signed the knockout many of them providing at work and competitive prices of competing products.
In 1862, the Prefect indicates the progress of evolution: "textile workers began to abandon the Limoux region, to bring to Narbonne where the cultivation of vines grows Farm workers do the same.".
The Second Empire, with its economic transformation capitals gave the department of Aude much of its present appearance. He also assured the preservation of the city of Carcassonne and the start of repairs, led by Viollet-le-Duc.(13)

The Third Republic - The Department took an honorable part, with its soldiers and moving to the unfortunate war of 1870-71, and during the Commune of Paris, Narbonne had its insurgency week from 23 to 31 March 1871. Several hundred people participated in the movement. Masters of City Hall insurgents could not resist the troops encircled Narbonne. After brief talks they laid down their weapons.

The phylloxera crisis - In 1884, a new report indicates Prefect "The manufactures of cloth existed, so to speak, in fact, the profitable cultivation of the vine called many arms and paid labor in cheap money, the workers have abandoned their meager wages. "
But at that time the vine was on the verge of ruin. For several years, phylloxera threatened from all sides. Fortunately amidst the ruin of other departments, Aude remained almost unscathed. But the danger was such a true spirit of war prevailed in the population.
The march of the scourge was inexorable and prefectural report of 1885 noted: ". Yesterday was the well-being today is discouragement and ruin seems next"
The phylloxera crisis showed that the Aude peasants remained able to cope with the most dire situations and remained faithful to their land. But they could replenish their vineyards that getting into debt and had not yet recovered from their mistakes when the poor sales of wine in the wine regions caused a revolution of sorts.

The slump wine - It was generally attributed to the mass production of cheap wine, thanks to artificial sweetening. Good wine vines not sold even a penny more per liter. The owners unsuccessfully asked the laws against fraud and make the wine, natural product, its proper place.
Massive demonstrations grouping hundred to two hundred thousand people were held in all major cities of Languedoc trains attacked, invaded cities, crowds camping out in the streets and squares, gave the region a dangerous agitation. The tax was not paid, municipalities resigned and voters refused to appoint new ones. The government arrested the mayor of Narbonne and cited in court the leaders of the movement. The most popular, Marcellin Albert, Argeliers, took on his countrymen a prodigious influence.
At Narbonne turned the tragic events. The excited crowd, made barricades, set fire to the sub-prefecture, and met with the troop. There were dead and wounded. The agitation was finally appeased by a law against fraud: each owner had to report each year to the town hall, he cultivated area under vines and the quantity of wine produced. the mevent abated, and the price of wine came up.(13)

In Baraigne the village was mainly agricultural, and at the end of the 19th century other businesses appeared.
A new windmill was built on the north hill, he turned without interruption until 1955. Whole population brought his wheat for communal bread oven.
At the beginning of 1900, the municipality had except menier, two masons and a coffee shop.

Retour

1900 - 1950 Two Wars

World War I
After the loss of population in the 1860s, the war of 1914-1918 was a second demographic catastrophe for the region. Over 20% of young people between 18 and 25 did not survive the battle and the mortality rate of the survivors, it is a third of the workforce who disappeared Lauragais.
A Baraigne nine men did not return to their families.
The impact on the economy of the region was dramatic. Women, children and old men who had replaced during the war, could not fully ensure the needs of the earth. From the end of the war, a large foreign labor arrived in the region, especially in Spanish is in the region of vineyards and later Italian western Lauragais. Fleeing to turn the war-torn regions, including the Spanish Revolution of 1936
(5).
After 1918, the prosperity of the amazing progress made ​​in 1930 and before, Aude was one of the richest agricultural departments of France. This prosperity allowed the transformation of many villages and towns, particularly Carcassonne and Narbonne. The celebrations of the bi-millennium of the city of Carcassonne was a major French events of 1928.
The Second World War
Of course many young and recalled left Baraigne the 1st September 1939 for a second mobilization. But it was not until 1942, during the occupation of the southern zone, the German troops did break out in the region.
Mas Stes Puelles was strongly felt. An SS training stationed at Garrigue and a permanent position "Mongols" watched rail traffic station. A dozen young resistant constituted maquis area Colombiers, distinguished themselves by destroying electricity pylons of the SNCF Ricaud and sectioning at Segala, the overhead power line railway.
A Avignonet U.S. aircraft bombed a train Nazi soldiers.
Baraigne the middle, saw a few German troops, including the mill. Fearing the village was evacuated several times, but no serious extortion was reported.

 
Baraigne 1934
Baraigne winter 1934

More than 50 refugees from northern France and Belgium remained a few months in the town, protected and fed by people, some Baraigne left in the 50s and always come back to the region today.
One baraignois, prisoner in Germany fell victim to the madness of men.
Retour

1950 - 2000 The Second Breath

If this war was less deadly than in the first region, the population of the region continued to decline.
In 1950 the first tractors appeared and revolutionized the basis of life in the region: agriculture.
But where ten acres enough to support a family, it takes a hundred today.
A Baraigne, only four farmers share the common land. Helped by the consolidation of 1990 the price of the industrialization of agriculture, the countryside destroyed.
Fortunately for the region, in 1960, under the influence of Toulouse, the population of Lauragais steadied then progressed. In the tertiary sector, the influence of the metropolis now extends across the groove Lauragais to Carcassonne. (5)
But la Piège was long away from this new breath. Townships Fanjeaux, Belpech and Salles sur l'Hers emptied inexorably, the living conditions are becoming very difficult.
In Baraigne in 1970, the second decline was very sensitive, agriculture became very demanding area for many young people it was off.
The municipality has realized by organizing a restructuring of the older housing. This will be the creation of municipal subdivision in 1980. Now fully occupied by young families who work in Castelnaudary and Toulouse same. And to retain the creation of social structures (community center, tennis ...). The results are therefore not expect from a generation that works in town but its roots fully appreciate the quality of life of Lauragais, in ten years the population increased twenty percent.
Today Baraigne is a crossroads ... Agriculture has reached its limits, history Baraigne it begins to be discovered. Why not use it to revive the heritage, towards a future that is called : tourism.

© Serge Delestaing 1999/2002



Bibliography
(1) Daniel BONHOURE – Avignonet Lauragais – SI, MJC et Commune d’Avignonet 1989.
(2) Michel ROQUEBERT - L'Epopée Cathare "L'Invasion", "Mourir à Montségur" - Privat 1970
(3) Elie GRIFFE - Le Languedoc Cathare "1190 à 1210" - Letouzey & Ané 1971
(4) Inconnu - Histoire de Mas Ste Puelles
(5) Jean ODOL - Lauragais - Privat 1995
(6) Abbé SABARTHES - Histoire du clergé de l'Aude 1789-1803
(7) Abbé Jean BIAU - Une centenaire, l'église de Labastide d'Anjou 1989
(8) François FURET et RICHET - Histoire de la Révolution Française p.501
(9) Recherches de Gaston TISSINIER aux Archives de l'Aude 1984
(10) C.AMIEL, D. BAUDREU, C.MARQUIE, J.PINIES, J.PONS - Aude - Bonneton 1994
(11) Georges FOURNIER - La Révolution dans l'Aude - Horvath 1989
(12) René NELLI - Le Languedoc et le Comté de Foix - Gallimard 1958
(13) R.PLANDE - Géographie et histoire de l'Aude - France Nouvelle 1944
(14) Patrick MERIENNE - Atlas Mondial du Moyen Age - Ed.Ouest france 1997
(15) Paul TIRAND - Castelnaudary et le Lauragais Audois - Eché 1988

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