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HISTORY OF THE REGION part II
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1165 - 1250 : The Age "Cathar"
1250 - 1347 : Forgiveness
1348 - 1376 : The Black Death - The Hundred Years War
1400 - 1560 : Pastel
1560 - 1660 : The end of the pastel - The Wars of Religion
1660 - 1780 : Economic reforms
1780 - 1850 : Revolution
1850 - 1900 : Another Revolution
1900 - 1950 : Two wars
1950 - 2000 : The second breath
The "Cathar" period
Doctrin
Saint Dominique
The Crusade
The fall of Carcassonne
Simon de Montfort
The bonfire of the Casses
Gersende del Mas
Bernard de Mayreville
Repression
The Inquisition
Revolt
The massacre of the Inquisitors
The after massacre


The "Cathar" period

DOCTRIN - The doctrine of the Cathars were a few points in common with Christianity, but his moral was so severe that only a few insiders, perfect, were practicing. The rest of the believers lived in his own way, receiving, in case of danger of death, a sacrament, the "consolamentum", which rose to the rank of perfect. We could not get that once and he that profited should live as a perfect. Among the perfect was recruited Cathar clergy, led by bishops.
Dynasty Trencavels favored the heretics in 1167 they held a council at St. Felix de Caraman. A heretic bishop came from the East, the bishops are appointed to Carcassonne and Toulouse. Heretics lords obtained the right to have special cemeteries and took advantage of many privileges.
The abbot of Clairvaux, appointed by the pope to investigate in the South surrendered in 1178, the lands of Roger II Trencavels, protective declared the Cathars. He declared traitor, heretic and perjury, then excommunicated.
But this judgement is not hindered the progress of heresy. (13)

SAINT DOMINIQUE - It is between Avignonet and Carcassonne is that the Cathars located households among the most active Mas Saintes Puelles, Castelnaudary Laurac, Fanjeaux Montreal.

St Dominique
This is after 11 years of evangelization trips Raoul Diego and St. Dominic fail wearing bravely Orthodox speech. His miracle Fanjeaux where holy books emerged intact from the fire, made ​​him famous.
He was barefoot, begging bread.
His task was not easy, he sometimes we throw mud at him and the way to make fun of him and his companion, they attached straw in the back. The bad season, which would interrupt their travels few weeks, even if the surprise Fanjeaux, because it is during the 1206-1207 winter that Diego and Dominic founded at the foot of the hill of Fanjeaux Similarly, the monastery of Prouille which was to be their essential work and had become a fortress of faith. (2)
A Baraigne that year, Vidal de Caumont sold to Father Auger rights on the Church of St. Mary of Baraigne, but there was no mention of a castle.
THE CRUSADE - The heresy continues to grow, the pope decided to use violent means and unsuccessfully requested the King of France, Philip Augustus, to intervene with an army. The papal legate, Pierre de Castelnau, who was murdered by a squire of the Count of Toulouse, the crusade was preached.
The Crusader army formed in the north of France, the Pope gave the Crusaders the same benefits as an expedition to the Holy Land: "All Catholics have the permission to continue to occupy and excommunicated lords and keep their areas. "
Led by major archbishops of northern France, some knights and counts with Simon de Montfort, the armed crusade began.
The Count of Toulouse, who was directly threatened, agreed to save the conditions imposed by the pope he was flogged publicly in the church of St Gilles in June 1209 by the papal legate, Milo. He gave the other lords of the Midi.
The Crusader army, 50,000 men strong, invaded the fields of Raymond Roger, Viscount of Beziers and Carcassonne. After taking Beziers, Raymond Roger took refuge in the city of Carcassonne, with a few faithful lords he prepared resistance.
Narbonne spared the city included some heretics, the Crusaders marched on Carcassonne.

THE FALL OF CARCASSONNE - The Viscount was concentrated in the city a large garrison, but the crowd of refugees embarrassed defense and especially complicated refueling.
On August 3, the Crusaders took off assault the village of Saint-Michel, and four had set out to attack the village of Saint-Vincent, against which they had to undertake a siege: war machines and mines were due to rampart and the defenders had to retreat into the city.
The King of Aragon then intervened with Crusader: The papal legate gave the viscount and twelve lords to leave the city with horses and baggage, but the viscount refused to leave his city and its people. The fight resumed and assaults were repulsed cross, but he was in the city too many mouths to feed, the wells dried up. Viscount asked to negotiate: came to the camp of the Crusaders in Parliament, he was held prisoner there. The people lives were saved but the men had to leave all Carcassonne. They left the City August 15, 1209, taking only "their shirts and Brayes".
Viscount, captive in a tower of the city, died on 10 November, perhaps murdered. They gave him a dignified funeral of his rank. Around, people came in crowds, crying that he had sacrificed to defend.
Cathare Carcas
SIMON DE MONTFORT - During the campaign, Simon de Monfort performed admirably by the ardor of his faith, his courage, his military skill and his great success.
Simon de Montfort
The Viscount of Carcassonne and Beziers, conquered lands were offered to the Duke of Burgundy, and the Duke of Nevers they refused because the Viscount Raymond-Roger had a young son, a refugee in the county of Foix. But Simon de Montfort accepted and became Viscount of Carcassonne.
He continued conquest, seizing Minerva where hundreds of heretics threw themselves into the fire rather than surrender, taking the castle of Termes in the Corbières.
Alzonne Montreal in 1211 and were removed and Simon attacked the four castles Cabardés already invested, without success, the previous year. The Lord Pierre de Cabaret treated with the head of the Crusaders gave castles and also received new lands.
Simon de Montfort was then brought to the Lauragais. The Count of Toulouse tried, with the help of the Count of Foix, to stop, but they suffered, near Castelnaudary, a complete defeat.(13)
THE PYRE OF THE CASSES - At this point, Baraigne, Les Cassés belonged to Montgiscard castrum, which provided a solid support heretics. Roqueville the lords of the castrum, they were completely supportive. (3) For Cassés lived Alazaïs of Roqueville perfect, his son Raymond knight and lord of Raymonde and his wife who was later arrested and burned in 1245.
In spring 1211 Simon de Montfort had fallen in Toulouse, along with several loyal knights.
So began an extraordinary ride a month that would lead the Crusaders For Broken and Montferrand. Montfort besieged The Broken which capitulated after a short time. The monks of the Crusader army attempted to convert perfect and perfect, but it was in vain. So we drew up a bonfire, where we threw some sixty heretics.
Knights lives were saved, but their mother Alazaïs disappeared and it was impossible to prove that it was in the pyre. (2)
Bucher
Farther Montferrand stronghold defended by Beaudouin, brother of the Count of Toulouse and 14 knights resisted 14,000 men Montfort. But Baudouin went after negotiating his reward.
Montferrand neutralized Montfort headed Avignonet which capitulated after a few days of siege. The Avignonétains had waited too long with the Count of Toulouse and feared the vengeance of the Crusader (1).
In November 1212 the Statutes of Pamiers fixed the new laws and Simon de Montfort establishes a seneschal in Carcassonne.
Mort de Simon de Montfort
In 1213, King Peter of Aragon wanted to save what remained of his former estates of the South. He passed the Pyrenees at the head of a strong army, and, supported by the Count of Toulouse and the Count of Foix, fought with Simon de Montfort, September 12, 1213 in Muret. It was a complete victory for the Crusaders. The King of Aragon was killed and his troops suffered considerable losses.
Simon de Montfort became Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, which Arnaud Almaric was archbishop. Between the two men broke a rivalry so intense that the archbishop excommunicated the count.
Everywhere the conquest had the most serious consequences for the people: cities taken, ruined commerce, destroyed or exiled noble dynasties: the conquerors were introducing their language and customs, installing all of French North to monitor the vanquished.
However, his rule was not firmly established. Toulouse rebelled and 26 June 1218, Simon de Montfort who was besieging the city, was killed by a stone "went straight where he was struck and so just the count of Montfort on the steel helmet, that it put apart eyes, brain, teeth, forehead and count fell bloody and black earth. "(Song of the Crusade)
His son Amaury wanted to avenge the death of his father and continued the siege. He twice tried to set fire to the city, but after months of fruitless efforts, he walked away carrying the embalmed body of his father. The body of Simon de Montfort was first buried in the cathedral of Carcassonne and was then transferred to the monastery of the Hautes-Bruyeres, near Montfort l'Amaury, cradle of the family.
(14)
GARSENDE DEL MAS - At Mas Stes Puelles family lived lords "Manso" in Latin, "del Mas" in Occitan, (which we could do today Delmas). The grandmother was called Garsende. She was the mother of the Knights Bernard Gaillard, Jordan, William and Aribert, who shared the lordship of Mas.
A few years before the crusade, she opened a heretic hospitality, along with one of his daughters, Gaillarde, perfect as her.
She watched closely the religion of the family, and especially children's education, receiving his little son Bertrand Quiders, age five, or niece small Géraude in which she learned to love the perfect.
Garsende and Gaillarde lived together until their death, leaving occasionally Mas to visit a particular family member, as Géraude, who had married Estieu of Roqueville, and they went to see Baraigne 1215 .
To 1225 Estieu of Roqueville led the two women Caillabel near Baraigne. They stayed there for two weeks and then went away to Montsegur, where Aribert came to visit them.
Retirement does not mean that was final: the brothers Bernard and Guillaume, with the help of prior Mas, tore them to heresy (at least that's what Bernard himself later said the inquisitors). "But they are returned and were burned." (2)
Croix de Bigorre
Caillabel
Vierge
BERNARD DE MAYREVILLE - Deacon Baraigne
Born Force Mayreville, halfway between Castelnaudary and Belpech, Bernard de Mayreville deacon knight settled in 1225 Mas Stes Puelles.
It unfolted tireless predicant activity villages Laurac, Fanjeaux and Gaja south and Baraigne in St Michel de Lanes westward.
He frequently returned to Mayreville see his brothers.
His mission was to visit constantly often reduced to two or three perfect who were hiding in the woods or hiding in the basement or attic of a believing community.
In 1237, he moved to Montsegur where he had his "home". There was visited by Bernard de Roqueville.
He ordered a perfect newcomer Guillaume Carriére.
He frequently went down the "pog" to continue to visit his diaconé Mas Stes Puelles.En 1242, at the time of the murder of the Inquisitors, he was Avignonet. Shortly after near Montmaur, he bought Bertrand de Quiders a book that had belonged to the Inquisitors.
It loses its trace to 1244-45, without anyone knowing what was his fate.(2)
THE INQUISITION - In April 1233, after the death of St. Dominic, Pope Gregory IX instituted the Inquisition tribunals. Judges usually chosen from the Dominicans followed regulations borrowed from ancient Roman criminal law. This rigorous procedure prevented the accused be defended by a lawyer, he did not hear the witnesses testifying against him and could be subjected to torture, but the conviction was imposed if the court obtained the confession the accused.
The acquittals were quite numerous. Many sentences resulted in minor penalties: public retraction, churches tours, pilgrimages. Imprisonment or walling, the total confiscation of property, the death sentence (accused surrendered to the secular justice) were generally quite rare, if one considers the large number of trial.
Some forgetful inquisitors instructions of the Pope, made ​​in excessive use. The courts of Carcassonne and Narbonne had a justified reputation of severity.
Inquisiteurs
REVOLT - Aware of this situation, the heir of the viscounts of Carcassonne in 1240 attempted a bold stroke. He was then aged 33 years, and suddenly reappeared at the head of a small band of "faidits". September 8, 1240 Trencavels entered the towns of Carcassonne whose citizens opened the doors. Thirty-three priests were massacred. Viscount began attacking the city that successfully defended the Seneschal, Guillaume des Ormes. Despite violent assaults Trencavels could not take place and the arrival of a French relief army forced him to raise the siege on October 8. The submission of the region was rapidly passed Trencavels Aragon. Other lords resisted unto death, and dozens of knights took the castle of Buc, were hanged.
But residents endured the severe consequences of the failure of the revolt of the city was razed Montolieu, the towns of Carcassonne and also all the inhabitants expelled. The Inquisition redoubled zeal and royal officials indulged in all sorts of excesses.
The atrocious tortures people revolted. Numerous complaints reached the Vatican, the pope suspended the exercise of the Holy Office in Toulouse until 1241.
At his death in August 1241, the Inquisitors redoubled their violence.
The new pope had the agreement of the king to destroy the religious pretext Cathar religion. There were too long as its continued survival, we had to find a cause to cause a total war. It was enough to leave the Inquisitors move to the faithful the Count of Toulouse towns. Avignonet was ideal. (1)

Massacre

THE MASSACRE OF THE INQUISITORS - At the end of May 1242, the Inquisitors sorèze left in the Tarn to Avignonet where they arrived just before the Ascension.
Meanwhile, two knights, and Guilhem Raimon de Pierre Planha (Plaigne) down from the fortress of Montsegur. At Bram, they meet Jordanet Mas Saintes Puelles, who spoke of their wish to have an interview with them Raimon Alfaro. Raimon Alfaro, provost, the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, was the position of bailiff of the castle 'Avignonet.
In the Antioch forest near Mas insisted the bailiff to swear Guilhem (Cathar religion forbade him to swear). It should be sealed letters seal Counts Pierre Roger de Mirepoix, Montsegur captain and secrecy.
Raimon Alfaro exposed to Guilhem de Planha content missives. As a reward he would have the best horse entered after the massacre (which was done).
In great haste he arrived at Montsegur, bending one knee, he gave the letters to Pierre Roger. After reading, he said: "Prepare This is an important case that will bring you great profit!.". After a night of feverish preparations, at dawn, a group of sixty men, including 15 knights left the pog of Montsegur commanded by Pierre Roger de Mirepoix.
She passed Montferrier, Villeneuve d'Olmes Lavelanet and probably Mirepoix. At halt of Gaja-la Selve the troop were restored and horses cared for. Another group joined them controlled by Pierre Vilar Mazerolles and Jordans. There were several sergeants at arms and two archers. At Gaja and along the way other men increased the number of conspirators.
Probably Payra sur l'Hers at Antioch castle troop split into four to better ensure their safety, some waited between Castelnaudary and St Martin Lalande to cut off the Inquisitors, another in the wastelands above Mas St Puelles, another finally stationed in the West Avignonet.
Guilhem de Plana exhausted waited Pierre Roger de Mirepoix, as well as other men, we do not know exactly where, Payra? The Castle of Antioch, was it at Payra or near the Mas Saintes Puelles?
The expeditionary force returned. Several waves of attackers should be followed if there had been a setback.

May 28, 1242 at Baraigne, which was completely acquired the heretics, the troops joined the shelter of the valley.
At Marvail, became the link between the attackers and Guilhem Raimon Golairan and Bertrand de Quiries, people Avignonet (At Mas Saintes Puelles a farm still bears the name "Quiries").
The group of attackers consisted of twelve armed men. The command was provided by three faidits Knights (off-the-law that the knights castle and lands were confiscated by the Inquisition). They called Balaguier, Bernard de Saint-Martin and Guilhaume of Hille.

Vieux ramparts d'Avignonet
Golayran and Quiries made ​​them cross the plain and asked them to wait in the slaughterhouse, located in a crossbow scope of the city.
Guilhem Raimon Golayran knight Avignonet, had taken over the local organization of the plot. His presence was reported several times Montsegur. With twenty men, he returned to the slaughterhouse after ensuring that the inquisitors were sleeping. Full black night all the troops returned to the fortified town. The last stop was in front of Golayran where men went out with torches.
The show was amazing. On the walls were dancing shadows. Above the heads of armed men, the flames of the torches reflected off the blades freshly sharpened axes. Only metallic clatter disturbed the heavy silence.
Raimon Alfaro, wearing a white jerkin waiting at the entrance of the castle. Bernard Na Vidai opened the doors. A squire led them into the room where slept the Inquisitors.
The tension was the passage of each door open. When the conspirators saw the big curtain behind which slept the inquisitors, they rushed in over so quickly that the religious had time to chant a hymn (Te Deum?).
Axes, spears, knives fell upon them. Guilhaume Arnaud had his tongue pierced with a knife, it was too much misfortune.
Vengeance executed, began entering the loot but it was thin books, candlesticks, a box of ginger, a few pieces of money, clothes, scapulars and knives. The cheers faded disappointment, and later drifted minds the most spooky stories.
When all was "over and done" the Avignonétains accompanied the conspirators of Montsegur and Gaja out of town. Impatient Pierre Roger de Mirepoix waiting for his men.
When the commando found him he complained that he did not bring the skull Guilhaume Arnaud. He wanted to make a glass rimmed with gold, but was told that he had been broken.
Back in Avignonet Raimon Alfaro and his accomplices called to arms.
The news quickly spread throughout the Languedoc, and the hope of a better life was born.
THE AFTER MASSACRE - The bodies of inquisitors were transported and buried in Toulouse by the monks of the order.
The Ascension Day 1242, the murderers of the inquisitors were welcomed as heroes in Saint Felix de Toumegat in the Hers valley, east of Pamiers. Even the priest rejoice with his flock.
The murderers avignonétains sometimes scattered far. Raimon Alfaro took refuge in the north of Italy, and Bertrand de Quiries, more specifically, in Lombardy.
Raimond VII likely instigator of the massacre, was excommunicated by the new leaders of the Inquisition in 1243 and then pardoned by the new Pope Innocent IV. He was forced to help the Inquisition redoubled violence. In a short time the pope and the king knew that the assassins came down from Montsegur.
Reprisals were terrible, Baraigne did not escape. The troops of the Inquisition visited the village, all the corpses suspected Cathars were exhumed from the cemetery and burned on a woodshed erected on the embankment behind the church to the cemetery. All "suspect" carried the cross of infamy.
In April 1243 the bishops assembled in Beziers decided to attack Montsegur. The fortress "symbol" was taken in spring 1244 after a long siege. (1)
Tour d'Avignonet


1250 - 1347 : Forgiveness
It was one of the great merits of Louis IX to have understood that this unfortunate Aude region could never become French heart if methods odious continued: he sent investigators suppressed violation and the pope asked the Inquisitors less less cruel and unjust. For orders of 1254 and 1259, Louis IX was returning goods to many descendants of the ancient heretics.

Baillage Avignonet

In 1247, he authorized the inhabitants of Carcassonne rebuild their village, but to give the city all its military value, it no longer wanted to agglomeration near the ramparts. Royal commissioners fixed the location of the new town on the left bank of the Aude. The perpendicular streets perfectly straight, the central square, were designed in terms of a large country house.
Louis IX also wanted an end to the claims of the Kings of Aragon on the Languedoc region: he succeeded by the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258.
In 1271 Gautier Varagne, knight, was present at the swearing in to the king by the consuls of Carcassonne.
In 1272 and 1282, his brother Gaufrid was elected to the assembly of the nobility of the Seneschal, and in 1287 he was elected governor of Carcassonne.
Louis IX was also undertaken a lot of work to transform the city that his son Philiple Hardi continued.
A permanent garrison sergeants at arms in the pay of the king was under the direct orders of the steward. Every night watching 40 men at arms and numerous rounds checked the guard posts.


At the time of Philip III, the city often served to stay in the Court. In 1283 he even held a parliament. (13) In 1318, the Diocese of Saint Papoul was created by Pope Jean XXII. The new diocese included forty four parishes which Baraigne, Caillavel Belflou and eight appendices.
The diocese was created by Papal Bull of 22 February 1318, it survived until the Revolution. (4)
Baraigne depended Baillage Avignonet. (1)
Gradually the bitter struggles of the past subsided. The new generations forget the hatred that had long dominated. The old nobility was totally extinguished. Unlike many royal officials had taken root in the country and formed faithful to French traditions and the king troops. Gained influence in the population.
Catholicism was also a winner in this fight than a century.
However, the langue d'oc, or rather Occitan, was not abandoned. Farmers continued to regard it as their mother tongue.
Poets still served, but after the fourteenth century troubadours disappeared.



1348 - 1376 : The Black Death - The Hundred Years War

The Black Death - In 1329 a ship came from Crimea brought the plague, the disease that would decimate a third of the European population.
"Sharp pains were felt in the chest, bloody sputum and breath were made ​​was a horrible stench. Throat and tongue burnt by excessive heat, were black and blood-stained ... Often large abscess formed on the thighs and arms. "(Cantacugène Jean Duchy World History 1960).
The contagion was terrible. She reached the Lauragais in 1348.
The region lost half of its population.

The Hundred Years War - Under the spiritual unity and a medieval civilization flourished, commerce and agriculture were booming. It was peace.
But the first act of the "English French tragedy" began.
The English attacked the Languedoc in 1355.
"It was not, strictly speaking a military expedition, says a historian, but an invasion of armed peasants, little English but Bordeaux, Basque and Landes."
The Black Prince, son of Edward III, Prince of Wales, who landed in Gascony late July 1355 meeting in Bordeaux in 1500 spears, archers 11000, and 3000 soldiers of light troops.
He began to move in October. Bordeaux, he won the Lauragais through the valley of the Garonne, Toulouse plundered around it circled, burned Castanet Baziège, Montgiscard, Villefranche de Lauragais Avignonet, Mas Saintes Puelles October 31.
"He reached Castelnaudary, a good big city and castle and filled with good people and goods. But it was not closed, nor either castle, if not of earth walls according to the custom of the country . the English surrounded the assailed him, and took it. and there was a great slaughter of men and the whole city was run, sacked, pillaged and all the good they have caught and removed. Prince and his men rested there half a day and a night, and the next day they went on growing to Carcassonne. "(Chronicles of Froissart)
After having burned Fanjeaux ride the Black Prince stopped at the Cité de Carcassonne defended by Count Aymeric. They seized Limoux they pillaged and burned, returned to Carcassonne where the town became engulfed in flames, and annihilated Montreal before heading back to Bordeaux.
Crops were burned, vines and fruit trees cut.

In 1373, the ravages of the plague came to add scarcity. The wheat harvest was very poor. (1)
 

1400 - 1560 : Pastel
1560 - 1660 : The end of the pastel - The Reform
1660 - 1780 : Economic reforms
1780 - 1850 : Revolution
1850 - 1900 : Another revolution
1900 - 1950 : Two wars
1950 - 2000 : The second breath

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