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HISTORY OF THE REGION part I
Accueil

2000 BC - 500 : The Origins
500 - 110 : Middle Age
1100 - 1165 : Varanano
1165 - 1250 : The "Cathar"Age
1250 - 1347 : Forgiveness
1348 - 1376 : The Black Death - The Hundred Years War
1400 - 1560 : Pastel
1560 - 1660 :The end of the pastel - The Wars of Religion
1660 - 1780 : Economic reforms
1780 - 1850 : Revolution
1850 - 1900 : Another Revolution
1900 - 1950 : Two Wars
1950 - 2000 : The second breath

Titre histoire

From Toulouse to Narbonne ...

History of the region.

Bar-Avignonet

Preamble

The following text is not the subject of a paper edition, although its print than forty pages. Considering that this is a digital book, and presented as such, I wanted to make up this text and putting it online, it benefits the greatest number.
The copyright on the Internet is totally utopian, I will wish that only a few people who use it, quoting the source: "S.Delestaing - Website Baraigne - 2002."
The following formula: "All the characters in this story are fictitious and have really existed, events and places are not a coincidence ..." Happy reading.

To my parents
To Jean-Pierre Cassabel my History teacher


2000 BC - 500: The Origins

If prehistoric traces are quite numerous in the department, none have delivered significant treasure.
Objects and weapons found in various fields show that the region already benefited because a preferred major pathways circumstances.
To the sixth century BCE, the Hebrews and the Greeks have known Narbonne was the capital of the tribe Elisyques and a busy port.

The Celtic times: The Volques - Towards the end of the fourth century BC, the invaders from the north, occupied almost the whole of Gaul: that the Celts were divided into different peoples, one of the Volques Tectosages dominated from the Garonne to the Herault.
Volques found a country already partially organized in the Iberian and Greek influence.
They mingled without much violence to local populations and did not attempt to establish state.
When Hannibal crossing the country, marched on Italy - 218, concludes treaties with many indigenous leaders and met with no opposition.
Volques were won by the influence of very civilized peoples: they lost their Celtic character and became a Mediterranean people. This explains the relatively rapid transformation of this part of Gaul progress of crops, creation of fortified centers, increased trade, and had resulted in the creation of cities Carcasso (Carcassonne), Eburomagus (Bram) Sestomagus ( Castelnaudary).
Narbonne, growing constantly attracted the attention of the Romans by Italian merchants who were largely trade in the region, since Rome's victory over Carthage.(13)

The Roman Conquest - It was the last act of a long penetration remained peaceful and commercial. In - 125, Domitius Aenobarbus seized Narbonne.
In - 118, the Roman Licinius Crassus led a group of Roman family in Narbonne in order to create a colony, and all the Aude country came under Roman rule.
Volques tribes were allies of the Romans, they retained their customs, their princes, but Rome would provide money and soldiers.
Roman rule was first precarious, and during the civil wars between the Roman generals, Narbonne is lifted.
Between - 76 and - 79 under the administration of Manius Fonteius, trade gained momentum between Narbonne and Toulouse along the isthmus Aude: goods, upstream of Narbonne, were transported on Atax (Aude) . Many vineyards, olive trees were planted, imported Italian poplar, flourished in the western region of the Aude (13)

The time of Caesar - A Narbonne, the first Roman colony, too small, had gradually melted into the local population and many settlers were shipped.
The conquest of Gaul by Caesar interested very little area for three quarters of century, the Romans had these countries and used it as a base of operations. Caesar is reinforcements of men, and these "brave soldiers" were rewarded by granting them new privileges. Many inhabitants of Narbonne became Roman citizens.
Thereby, the Aude region was towards the middle of the first century BCE, completely united to the Roman Empire, while the rest of Gaul had just been conquered by Caesar.

The Gallo-Roman period - From the time of Caesar and Augustus, the Aude region, as throughout the province of Narbonne, enjoyed the peace and order and bénificia organization and wealth of the Roman Empire.
At the beginning of the first century of our era, Narbonne was the largest city in Gaul, the most important port of the Western Mediterranean.
In rural areas or large rural villas operated a large part of the ground.
The Celtic language definitely disappeared and all the old traditions: the cult of Rome and the Emperor became the main religion.
Peace reigned for centuries, resulting in a remarkable prosperity.

In 27 before our era, Augustus came to Narbonne and organized the province. She passed under the authority of the Senate of Rome meant the proconsul.
The Narbonnese included the Languedoc including Toulouse and Provence. The territory was divided into cities, the Aude region was divided between the city of Narbonne and the city of Toulouse.
The Roman road Narbonne-Toulouse artery Province, received the secondary routes and communications was the subject of intense traffic. (13)
A Avignonet at least fifteen Gallo-Roman sites are still listed. A Montferrand the Romans had built a large mansio. Large houses lined along the route of Aquitaine, "Mutatio Elusione" the relay to Elusio Naurouze.
Further south to Cumiés, where some Romans were also installed, an important site was recently discovered.
Horses and men were accustomed to naturally stop at the crossroads of Avignonet Montferrand Cumiés and one water point that is the source of "Fresquel". This will stop the "Varianus" ... Baraigne.
(14)
Romain IV


500 - 1100 : Middle Age
THE VISIGOTHS - Roman civilization was still very bright, when the Visigoths appeared in the region to 412.
These barbarians will surge to a civilization that gives way to relax and devastate everything. So there is very little historical evidence.
The Visigoths were able to form a great kingdom including Spain and Gaul to the Loire and Rhône: Toulouse was the capital. But this great state will last a short time. In 507, the Visigoth king Alaric II was defeated and killed by Clovis Vouillé which seized all Aquitaine.


Wisigots

Wisigots2
ARAB - In 711, Spain was conquered by the Arabs and the Visigoth kingdom disappeared.
In 713, during a fast shipping, town of Carcassonne was plundered.
In 719, Narbonne besieged by Chief buckwheat El Samah, died. The men were killed, women and children taken captive in Spain, but in 721 capitulate to Toulouse.
Carcassonne suffered the same fate in 725.
The Arab domination will not last. If Charles Martel could not take Narbonne after his victory at Poitiers in 732, his son Pepin le Bref, entered in 759, and the Arabs expelled from Septimania are returned more than abrupt raids.

(14)

COLONIZATION - Devastated by the Saracens ravaged campaigns of Charles Martel and Pepin le Bref, the Aude region was towards the end of the eighth century, a veritable land of colonization.
Not only Pepin le Bref and Charlemagne wanted to firmly establish their dominion over this land which formed with Catalonia "The Spanish March," but they also decided to give the Catholic Church a new force to better resist.
These kings agreed to monks land, usually with some idle poor buildings. But these monks were not content to pray, mounted away from cities and main roads, abbeys they created and contributed to the re-use of empty countryside. On their land that escaped the authority of local lords and enjoyed precious privileges, many farmers came to settle. (13)
For the first time, the Aude region was part of the Kingdom of the Franks.
Western Christendom was saved.

In 778 Charlemagne founded the kingdom of Aquitaine. The Church by abbeys was beginning to get the upper hand on the economy.
Soon the chapels were built in stone in the middle of villages still mud houses. (1)
At this point we began to dig into the rock "crozes" grain elevators. Several are known in the town. Life, survival was nonagricultural and should be retained, protect a crop year.
The lords took advantage of this revival. They built the first defense towers as armed gangs still circulated in the South, but in exchange they annexed a lot of land ...
It is at this point, that became more exposed Avignonet fortified village.
For Baraigne still sheltered at the bottom of the valley, it was for later.
Carolingiens(14)

France Xe
But at the beginning of the tenth century, the Carolingian monarchy lost all authority over the south. Counts became independent, were the real masters and established themselves, even to the church, appointing abbots, bishops setting of their choice.
The Aude region, like all the South, clearly separated in the northern countries of the Massif Central, the language of Oc, born of Latin, much closer people of Toulouse, Carcassonne, Narbonne, Marseille, residents of Catalonia, Provence, Italy.(13)


1100 - 1165 Varanano

From the mid-twelfth century, feudalism led a difficult policy between the County of Barcelona and the County of Toulouse, who had one and the other claims on the Aude region.
The Count of Carcassonne sometimes extended his power far beyond the limits of his county, Count Roger was a master of Razes, Comminges, country of Foix, Saissac, Mirepoix, Chalabre.
By cons, west of the Aude region depended more of Toulouse and the south was coveted by the counts of Cerdanya and Roussillon.
Abbeys remained, but often fell under the control of secular lords.
In the countryside, the property free and clear, very rare in other provinces, are frequently encountered. Moreover, population, met in large villages or small towns, sheltered behind the walls and lived in community.

In 1155, there was the first manuscript testimony locality Baraigne under the name "Varanano".
It was at this time that will be built the church of St. Mary Baraigne.
In this civilization much more advanced than that of the north, the Catholic Church had long kept the first place: Pope Urban II, returning to preach the First Crusade, was spent in Carcassonne and Narbonne.
However, during the twelfth century, a large part of the population escaped the influence of the Catholic Church, priests and bishops, from the country, seem to have neglected the study and prediction. Many common people became indifferent, lost faith.
Then spread heresy, Catharism: the religion, of Eastern origin, came through the ports of the Mediterranean coast and spread to Nîmes, Béziers, Carcassonne.
France 1100(14)
 

1165 - 1250 : The "Cathar"Age
1250 - 1347 : Forgiveness
1348 - 1376 : The Black Death - The Hundred Years War
1400 - 1560 : Pastel
1560 - 1660 : The end of the pastel - The Wars of Religion
1660 - 1780 : Economic reforms
1780 - 1850 : Revolution
1850 - 1900 : Anothere Revolution
1900 - 1950 : Two Wars
1950 - 2000 : The second breath
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