France

UK
TYPOLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY OF THE CROSS
The study Leo BARBE (Bulletin of the Federation Archaeological Herault 1979)


II - FIRST SYMBOLICS DEVELOPMENTS

Although almost contemporary precedents types considered below are no longer the simple graphic of a instrument of torture even if it is figured that as a symbol of victory of figurative death. The design is, that without a more complex as the meaning ornamental or artistic intent, and they come from other previous symbols.

MONOGRAMMATIC CROSS : This is the terminology that seemed the most common, and therefore to remember. But it also says : monogram cross Constantinian cross and monogram cross. The latter term suggests that some might consider such as a monogram, not a cross, but JB de Rossi has provided evidence that he was regarded in his time as a representation of the cross. We believe to have found other, first of all, in the representation of a very special monogrammatic cross the cemetery of Domitilla in Rome, this time based, not on the chrism, but on the cross, tau and also in a Lombard currency where monogrammatic cross is represented on a pedestal, which equates to a totally monumental cross. We therefore ask that the definition monogrammatic cross is a combination chart where the cross, especially Latin, Greek and possibly sometimes tau prominently, with the chrism which is reduced to the single loop of the letter P, or that of R corresponding to the chrism Latinized. This loop can be depicted on the right and left of the upper arm of the cross, even to both right and left on late types with the intention, of course, purely decorative.
ANKH : ansata former, that is to say with a handle. It is, indeed, a tau cross on the horizontal branch which lies in the axis of the vertical branch, sometimes as a hard oval suspension ring. It is risky to try to clarify the symbolic sense, certainly complex, this type of cross die. Some see a tau cross surmounted by a triumphal crown for others it is an anthropomorphic cross, for still others, it is a loan to the Egyptian symbol identical, ANK, because of its meaning: life to come, or the millions of years of life, which is consistent with the symbolic meaning of the cross, but it can also be due to its resemblance to the cross monogrammatic already very common in Egypt.
ÉCOTÉE CROSS : This is a cross made ​​of tree trunks raw, unprocessed beams and simply lopped. This is intentional as we figured and reminded of the way the symbolic combination of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, the tree of life and the tree of the cross, the same word for Jews, meaning both the tree and the cross.

From the period called "the Peace of the Church", there has been a considerable growth in the use and representation of the symbol of the cross that can now come to light safely and without camouflage . After the invention of the True Cross is an explosion he must speak in this development, and the symbol, far shy phylactery, briefly etched or painted on a few graves, will undergo significant changes, formal, decorative and functional, to adapt to what is called "the triumph of the Church" and become its emblem.

In the following chapters, we will therefore consider the many types that result from a change of form, the other changes due to many specific uses to which it is now attached.


III - FIRST FORMAL CHANGES
IV -TERMS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CROSS IN RELATION TO USE
V - TYPE OF CROSS EMBLEM OF MONASTIC ORDER AND HERESIES
Edition : © SD 2013 with Dreamweaver CS6